The Effect of Crystal Size and Encapsulation of Salt on Sodium Distribution and Mobility in Bread as Studied with 23Na Double Quantum Filtering NMR
Salt plays an important functional role in foods. However, dietary recommendations imply the need for sodium reduction due to the health risk connected to its consumption, including cardio-vascular diseases and increased blood pressure. Bread and cereals are major sources of salt in the western diet and are therefore relevant for salt reduction studies. Furthermore, studies have indicated a connection between salt perception and its distribution. The aim of this study was to compare the salt distribution and mobility of traditional French breads with different types of salt with varying crystal size, liquid salt or encapsulation of the salt by means of 23Na Double Quantum Filtering NMR spectroscopy, Significantly higher molar concentrations of restricted sodium were observed in breads salted with the standard crystal size than in breads salted with encapsulated salt, either used alone or in combination with the standard crystal salt. Encapsulation oils are generally dissolved during the baking step, thus leading to a delay in solubility of the encapsulated salt. This could explain lower concentrations of restricted sodium in the encapsulated samples. The standard salt showed a higher restricted fraction than the large crystal salted and encapsulated salted breads. Also, more restricted sodium was observed if the salt was added at the end of the kneading cycle. Relaxation times and optimal creation times measurements indicated that the mobility of salt was affected by salt encapsulation. The study showed that the type of salt and its state influences both the distribution and mobility of the salt in bread.