Self-assembly of designed peptides and their nanomaterials applications
Peptide self-assembling is one of the useful tools to fabricate various nanostructures including fibers, tubes, vesicles and spheres based on a supramolecular chemistry. Self-assembling peptides have various structural motifs including a β-sheet, an α-helical coiled-coil, a lipid/surfactant-like motif, a peptide amphiphile with an aliphatic tail and a diphenylalanine motif. Recent continuous studies for such self-assembling peptides give us much important information about the relationship between sequences and self-assembling properties. Self-assembled structures are applied to nanomaterials with various functional units and stimuli responsiveness by selective modification and peptide design. Self-assembling peptides are also utilized as potential scaffolds to construct hybrid nanomaterials for optical and electronic devices that involve controlled energy, light or charge transfer. Furthermore, their nanostructures with functionalized surfaces work as useful scaffolds for efficient mineralization of metallic/inorganic nanomaterials. Recent researches for self-assembling peptides spread to computational approaches for understanding of self-assembling mechanism and analyses of nanostructural properties. Computational techniques with improved designing works will encourage further development of self-assembling peptides and their nanomaterial applications.