Enhanced selectivity and sensitivity based on nanostructured materials’ adsorption behavior toward heavy metal ions
We have developed a new strategy based on the adsorption behaviour of nanostructured materials towards heavy metal ions (HIMs) to enhance the selectivity and sensitivity of electrochemical system. This chapter reviews our recent progress in application of various nanostructured materials as modifiers of electrodes in electrochemical detection of HIMs based on this new strategy using voltammetric techniques. These nanostructured materials include carbon nanomaterials, nanostructured metal oxides, and ion-printed polymer-based porous structures, etc. The developed electrochemical sensor based on these nanostructured materials showed increased sensitivity/selectivity and decreased detection limit. What is more, both the experimental and theoretical results have shown that the electrochemical response has a strong relationship with nanostructured materials' adsorption behaviour toward HIMs. In addition, the electrochemical analysis of HIMs from real samples also demonstrates the feasibility of this strategy.