Catalytic C–H/C–X Bond Functionalisation of Nucleosides, Nucleotides, Nucleic Acids, Amino Acids, Peptides and Proteins
Pd‐catalysed cross‐coupling chemistry is widely used to access modified and unnatural derivatives of nucleosides, nucleotides and amino acids. Many biologically active, fluorescent or electrochemically‐labelled compounds, not easily accessible by alternate methods, have been synthesised using Pd‐catalysed coupling chemistry. In recent years, this area has expanded to include the use of direct arylation and C–H activation methodologies for the direct synthesis of C‐modified biomolecules. Modified nucleosides and amino acids represent some of the most complex compounds yet synthesised by Pd‐catalysed direct C–H functionalisation. Current research has also begun to focus on the challenging Pd‐catalysed C‐functionalisation of large biomolecules such as nucleic acids, peptides and proteins. This field therefore represents the current cutting‐edge of Pd‐catalysed C‐functionalisation chemistry, and highlights the utility and versatility of these methodologies in the synthesis of highly complex biomolecules.