The Vibrational Field and Detection of Neuron Behavior
This chapter highlights the relevance of vibrational fields to detection methods in biology and neuroscience. The vibrating probe, with an insulated tip operating at around 300 Hz, is the simplest approach to date and is mainly used to detect differential ionic gradients in processes such as wound healing. In impedance spectroscopy, a small vibrating electrode is used to measure the activity of cells held close to the electrode. The tomography technique involves miniaturization of electrodes for electrical impedance in an imaging arrangement to ‘visualize’ particular organs based on the impedance of specific types of human tissue. The optical method, surface plasmon response technology, has figured prominently in efforts to monitor the behaviour of cells. Another optical technique, the light‐addressable potentiometric electrode, has used successfully to detect changes in action potential associated with drug stimulation. Acoustic wave sensors have been employed to detect behavioral characteristics of neuronal cells. In terms of detection strategies the chapter considers the potential offered by the scanning Kelvin nanoprobe (SKN), which has been employed to examine a single neuron imposed on a conductive material.