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CHAPTER 1

Introduction to Biosensor Technology

This chapter presents key aspects of biosensor technology such as ideal properties for their operation and the chemistry of probe attachment device surfaces, and summarizes the main categories of sensors based on electrochemistry, acoustic wave physics and optical science. Important performance characteristics are device selectivity, sensitivity, dynamic range and calibration with respect to target concentration, possibility for label‐free operation and response over time. Biosensors are fabricated from a variety of materials on which a probe, often a biochemical macromolecule, is immobilized. Key factors here are the retention of biochemical activity, orientation with respect to the device surface plane, and spatial distribution. The methods available to achieve these aims include relatively weak force of binding such as adsorption and entrapment. Other approaches result in more robust attachment involving covalent binding chemistry whether directly to the substrate surface or via linker such as self‐assembled monolayers. Immobilization in polymeric matrices via an instigated molecular cavity, the so‐called molecularly imprinted polymer, is also significant. The chapter concludes with a comprehensive bibliography.

Publication details

Print publication date
14 Aug 2013
Copyright year
2012
Print ISBN
978-1-84973-379-3
PDF eISBN
978-1-84973-541-4

From the book series:
Detection Science