This chapter reviews the recent developments in various sensor applications using nanoporous gold (NPG) materials. NPG materials provide a promising platform for the construction of ether enzyme-immobilized or nonenzymatic sensors for glucose, hydrogen peroxide, dopamine, and cancer biomarkers. Immobilization of thiolated capture DNA with NPG via the Au-thiol bond allows sensors for target DNA to be fabricated. The sensitivity of the detection was further improved by amplification strategies. NPG sensors for detection of nitrogen-containing compounds such as p-nitrophenol and nitrite are demonstrated. Finally, NPG as a promising substrate for surface-enhanced Raman scattering is evaluated. These examples illustrate the advantages of NPG for fabrication of diverse sensors.