Veterinary pesticides are used to treat a range of parasitic conditions in companion and farm animals. These products are based on a number of different compounds with different modes of action and different spectra of toxicity. The older agents include the synthetic pyrethroids and organophosphorus compounds, while the newer examples include, for example, representatives of the insect growth promoters, the neonicotinoids, and the oxadiazones. For many of these compounds, toxicity is associated with their pharmacological activity or mode of action. Thus the synthetic pyrethroids and the organophosphorus compounds exert neurotoxic effects. For others, toxicity may be associated with mechanisms that are independent of their mode of action. When used according to the manufacturer's instructions, these products are generally safe and efficacious. However, accidental contamination and misuse can lead to toxicity in operators and treated animals. These compounds are important in the treatment of parasitic disease in animals and their regulation and uses are based on favourable risk-benefit outcomes.