Electrical Modifications of Biomaterials' Surfaces: Beyond Hydrophobicity and Hydrophilicity
Various methods of the electrical modification of biomaterials are discussed in this Chapter, along with their advantages and disadvantages. Electrical modifications to impart electrical charge in biomaterials have been reported to have beneficial effect, in particular in osteogenesis. Higher rates of calcifications and cellular activities have been reported on negatively polarized Biomaterials' surfaces. This general observation cannot be reconciled purely due to the hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity of the surface, as the current theory does not suggest any influence of polarity of the surface on wetting behaviour. More fundamental studies are required to obtain a proper understanding of electrical modification on the reported selectivity in the stimulation of mineralization.