Nanostructures are linked to many areas of science and technology. A cornerstone of our current research is the practical development of boron cluster-based, nanostructured Materials-by-Design. It is now possible to imagine and predictably model properties, synthesis procedures, manufacturing processes, and to functionally integrate engineering principles. Super-properties such as hardness, wear, coating, as a form of resistance to many attacks (e.g. corrosion), conductivity, spin and energy conversion/storage, neutron protection and absorption, radiation shielding, armor, hardening, enforce, nanoenergetic, propulsion and glue materials, not to mention the boron neutron capture therapy in medicine, will benefit from the functionalization and industrialization of boron clusters and predicted nanostructures. The experimentally observed physical manifestations of a number of these clusters and nanostructures and related properties are consistent with our theoretical models. Early experiments have demonstrated the near-term viability of controlled synthesis for specific engineering properties.