The Bisacylhydrazine Insecticides
The bisacylhydrazine (BAH) insecticides are a class of green chemistry compounds very specific to the target insect pests that induce a premature molting process in the affected insects. The BAH insecticides bind to the ecdysone receptors in the target pests with a greater affinity than that observed for the natural hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone. This confers a greater level of selectivity towards most non-target organisms present in the ecosystems where the BAH insecticides are used. The BAH insecticides act directly on immature stages of the target insects (eggs and larvae) and cause some sublethal effects, such as delayed developmental rates and reduced fecundity and fertility on the adult stage of the pests. These insecticides have very good ecotoxicological profile, having virtually no impact on most non target organisms including beneficial insects and pollinators, (bees, predators and parasitoids), birds, fish and terrestrial invertebrates. The BAH insecticides also have low-toxicity to mammals making them reduced risk materials for humans handling the products. The most widely registered BAH is methoxyfenozide, which has registrations in more than 50 countries in a variety of crops ranging from vegetables to specialty uses such as forestry and tea. Due to their characteristics, the BAH insecticides can be incorporated in insecticide resistance and integrated pest management programs. Data related to these aspects of BAH insecticides are presented.