Direct Determination Methods Without Sample Preparation
The greenest alternatives to the traditional methods of analysis based on sample digestion and/or analyte extraction, are clearly those that permit the direct determination of as many analytes as possible without any sample pretreatment. This chapter deals with the main aspects and applications of remote sensing and teledetection systems, and the use of non-invasive methods of analysis, which permit a direct analysis of samples without any sample damage. In addition, the possibilities offered by several techniques to analyse solids directly without the use of reagents through the direct atomization of small portions of samples, the arc, spark or laser ablation of materials for their analysis by optical emission or mass spectrometry, are evaluated. This chapter attempts to provide a literature survey of all the aforementioned tools which have been evaluated from the perspective of greening analytical practices.