The range and number of applications involving HPCIC is steadily increasing as further developments in types of phases and mobile phase protocols are being made. The current improved understanding of stationary phase chelation kinetics, which together with a steady improvement in column efficiency from the use of smaller particle size substrates, has led to much improved peak shapes and faster separation times. This can be seen by comparing some of the earlier applications of HPCIC with the later ones described in this chapter. Many common sample types from industrial, biological and environmental areas have now been subjected to HPCIC analysis and are described herein. When considering these example applications, two things stand out, both marking HPCIC as a distinct and special mode of ion chromatography in its own right, namely, the much greater control of selectivity and the ability to analyse samples with high salt concentrations.