Metal-catalyzed Reactions in Water under MW Irradiation
The design of more sustainable synthetic protocols is an important goal of contemporary chemistry. In this context, the combined use of microwave irradiation, as a non-classical low-energy-consuming heating source, and water, as an environmentally friendly solvent, for synthetic organic chemistry is a relatively new field of research directly relied to essential aspects of Green Chemistry. This contribution provides an overview of the advances reached in the field of MW-assisted metal-catalyzed reactions in aqueous media. Among others, the following processes are discussed∶ nitrile and alkyne hydrations, isomerizations of alkenols and propargyl alcohols, H/D-exchange processes, Ullmann-type reactions, cyclizations (including “click chemistry”), oxidations and reductions.