Mass Spectrometry, Nutrition and Protein Turnover
Protein turnover is the result of synthesis of new and breakdown of old proteins in the body thereby providing a mechanism for the maintenance of optimally functioning proteins. Quantification of protein turnover rates is essential to understand these fundamental biological processes in all living organisms. Over the last decades, mass spectrometry has greatly contributed to the progress in the analysis of protein synthesis and breakdown and stable-isotope labelled tracers play a key role for the detailed quantitative measurement of protein metabolism. Isotope ratio and atmospheric pressure mass spectrometry enable the precise, accurate, and sensitive determination of isotope enrichments. More recently, methods have been developed to study total protein metabolism and multiplexed protein analysis for a comprehensive profiling at proteome level. Addressing protein turnover dynamics represent some technical challenges for proteome-wide analysis,
Nutrition plays a key role in the anabolic signalling for the stimulation of skeletal muscle protein synthesis. The combination of physical training and adequate protein intake acts synergistically to enhance muscle mass and performance. Studies in the elderly population confirmed the potential to address sarcopenia, the gradual loss of muscle mass and function with ageing, by adapted nutrition with adequate daily protein intake and resistance-type exercise training, allowing a substantial gain in skeletal muscle mass, strength, and functional performance.