Shigella is adapted to humans as the only natural host, although it can infect higher primates. Ingestion of contaminated food or water is the most common route of transmission of Shigella in adults. Shigellosis is mainly a problem in low-income countries in Asia and Africa, where it has been considered endemic. Sporadic cases of Shigella infection have also been reported from moderate- to high-income countries, most of which are associated with travelling to Shigella endemic countries. Over the years, only a few studies have been done on the development and evaluation of culture media for their isolation. Culture media that have been used for isolation of Shigella spp. are not very specific or sensitive and are also used for other Enterobacteriaceae. For food and water samples, enrichment in a non-selective broth followed by plating onto three culture media of varied selectivity can be used for the maximum recovery of Shigella spp. These media, along with some recent developments on culture media for the detection and selective isolation of these bacteria, are the focus of this review.