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Chapter 19

OGG1 at the Crossroads of Inflammation and DNA Base Excision Repair

Oxidative modification(s) to nucleic acid bases are an unavoidable consequence of reactions by reactive oxygen species. Arguably, the most abundant ROS-generated lesion in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA is 7, 8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoGua), which is repaired primarily by 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1, in the OGG1-initiated base excision repair pathway. Deficiency in OGG1 repair is believed to have role(s) in development and progression of various disease processes, including neurodegenerative, cardiovascular, metabolic diseases, and aging-associated pathologies. The common link among these diseases is acute/chronic inflammatory processes. Emerging data support the idea that OGG1-induced adjustments in DNA structure at genomic 8-oxoGua with or without excision, serve as a nucleation site for transcription factor binding allowing prompt expression of genes, essential for reestablishment of a homeostatic state via innate and adaptive immune responses after exposure to biological and/or cytotoxic agents. As part of the immune defenses, OGG1 in complex with a free 8-oxoGua base also exerts transcriptional control via small GTPase signaling pathways. These data are consistent with the limited immune responses of Ogg1 knockout mice. Thus, evolution integrated genome maintenance by OGG1-BER and control host homeostatic state via inflammation, which, if not controlled, can be one of the mechanistic explanations for OGG1's previously proposed link to diseases and aging processes.

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18 Nov 2020
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From the book series:
Chemical Biology