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High-frequency EPR: current state and perspectives

Starting from its discovery, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) is a constantly developing technique following technological advances in generation and detection of microwaves, creation of strong magnetic fields, and fast digitalization, among others. In this chapter, we discuss developments in the field of high-frequency EPR (HFEPR) with a special focus on experiments in the frequency domain compared to the traditional field domain EPR. We present significant progress in the experimental determination of Zeeman diagrams (frequency vs. field EPR maps) and discuss the advantages of HFEPR for investigating high-spin systems, particularly single-molecular magnets (SMMs). Besides, we dedicate a section to discuss the advances in the studies of the cyclotron resonance in thin-films and modern solid-state materials like graphene (graphite). Furthermore, the importance of HFEPR for dynamic nuclear polarisation (DNP) is discussed. At last, we demonstrate the possibility to access very short relaxation times (∼1 ns) by implementing frequency rapid scans, emphasizing the power of frequency domain EPR. This technique allowed to perform, for the first time, multi-frequency relaxation studies in a single spectrometer at frequencies above 100 GHz.

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26 Nov 2020
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