State-of-the-art Mass Spectrometry-based Approaches to Explore the Polar Metabolome: Alzheimer's Disease as a Case Study
The polar metabolome comprises numerous metabolite classes with huge chemical and functional heterogeneity, which are usually involved in primary metabolic pathways and, consequently, are closely related to the pathogenesis of multiple diseases. This chapter provides an overview and critical comparison of the most common mass spectrometry-based metabolomics platforms aimed to explore the polar metabolome, namely gas chromatography, hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography, capillary electrophoresis and direct mass spectrometry-based approaches. The utility and complementary character of these analytical techniques for probing the polar metabolome is demonstrated by using Alzheimer's disease as a case study. Special attention is devoted to the strengths and weaknesses of these metabolomics approaches.