Redox Polymers for All-organic Batteries
All-organic batteries based on redox polymers represent an emerging new battery technology with potential application in the Internet of Things, smart packaging and clothing as well as mobile devices. Indeed, organic redox polymers feature highly attractive advantages compared to inorganic-based materials with regards to these applications, such as processability, flexibility, high rate performance, long cycle life and the ability to prepare them from renewable resources. This chapter aims to provide a comprehensive review on the current state of the art of all-organic batteries based on redox polymers, focusing on all battery prototypes reported to date and the nature of the ion carriers involved in their redox reactions. Illustrating the gradual research direction transition observed during the development of the all-organic battery technology, going from an alkali metal-based ion carrier battery system, similar to a lithium-ion battery, to a molecular ion-based and finally a proton-based ion carrier battery system. A general introduction to battery terminology and the various cell configurations is also given. Finally, future perspectives on all-organic batteries are discussed, summarizing the major challenges that remain to be overcome by the current state-of-the-art technology to unlock their commercial implementation.