Nanobiotechnology is the application of nanotechnologies in biological fields. Chemists, physicists, and biologists each view nanotechnology as a branch of their own subject, and collaborations in which they each contribute equally are common. One result is the hybrid field of nanobiotechnology, which uses biological starting materials, biological design principles, or has biological or medical applications. While biotechnology deals with metabolic and other physiological processes of biological subjects, including microorganisms, nanobiotechnology can play a vital role in developing and implementing many useful tools for the study of life at the smallest scales. Already, the integration of nanomaterials with biology has led to the development of diagnostic devices, contrast agents, analytical tools, therapy, and drug-delivery vehicles. One particular area at the intersection of nanomedicine and nanobiotechnology is tissue engineering—a difficult task where living cells must be organized into tissues with structural and physiological features resembling natural structures in the body. The ultimate goal of tissue engineering is to replace or restore the anatomic structure and function of damaged, injured, or missing tissue—eventually providing doctors with the ability to replace entire organs. At the core of tissue engineering is the construction of three-dimensional scaffolds out of biomaterials to provide mechanical support and guide cell growth into new tissues or organs.