The fascination with nanotechnology stems from the unique quantum and surface phenomena that matter exhibits at the nanoscale, making possible novel materials and revolutionary applications. The collection of stories in this book barely scratches the surface of the vast and rapidly growing body of nanotechnology-related research across a broad range of disciplines. Nanotechnology is not an industry; nor is it a single technology or single field of research. What we call nanotechnology consists of sets of enabling technologies applicable to many traditional industries (therefore, it is more appropriate to speak of nanotechnologies in the plural). This chapter is a selection of intriguing developments in four key areas—plasmonics, nanobiotechnology, nanomedicine, and characterization—to give the interested reader an idea of the incredibly diverse aspects that make up current nanotechnology research and development.