Vanadium in Catalytically Proceeding Natural Processes
Vanadium plays a pivotal role in two enzymes, vanadium-dependent nitrogenases present in several bacterial strains, and vanadate-dependent haloperoxidases found in various brown and red sea-weeds and in hyphomycetes. Nitrogenases convert dinitrogen to ammonium ions but eventually also exhibit carbon monoxide and alkyne reductase activity. Haloperoxidases oxidise, with the help of peroxide, halides to hypohalous acids. As a phosphate antagonist, vanadate can interact with substrates otherwise subjected to phosphatase activity. Moreover, amavadin – a non-oxidovanadium compound found in amanita mushrooms – displays catalase and peroxidase activity.