Supported Vanadium Catalysts: Heterogeneous Molecular Complexes, Electrocatalysis and Biomass Transformation
Oxidovanadium complexes are an important class of homogeneous catalysts with paramount importance for the synthesis of valuable fine and bulk chemicals and chemical intermediates. However, their low chemical–thermal stability and difficult separation from the reaction medium hamper their implementation in industrial processes. In this sense, the quest for recyclable and eco-sustainable supported vanadium-based catalytic systems has been a longstanding goal. The aim of this chapter is to provide an overview of the widespread potential of supported vanadium complexes and other vanadium-containing solid-state compounds as eco-sustainable recyclable catalysts on several important reactions for the production of high value-added products. The progress on the development of efficient and reusable oxidovanadium catalysts immobilized onto different types of bulk and nano supports, or integrated on organic framework structures, will be reviewed. Special emphasis will be given to literature reports in which the catalytic performance of the vanadium-based heterogeneous systems surpasses that of the corresponding homogeneous counterparts. The application of vanadium-based materials as electrocatalysts for reduction–oxidation reactions relevant for renewable energy storage and conversion technologies will be also described. Subsequently, vanadium-mediated catalytic reactions for biomass valorization will be addressed. Finally, some insights on the latest theoretical findings on supported vanadium catalysts will be provided.