In the past few years, a special exfoliation method has been successfully used to strip a new family of two-dimensional transition metal carbides, nitrides, and carbonitrides from the layered MAX phase, called MXenes. These materials have the formula Mn + 1Xn, where M is a transition metal, X is C or N, and n = 1, 2, or 3. MXene is usually covered with functional groups, and thus, the formula Mn + lXnTx is also used, where T represents various functional groups. The as-synthesised MXenes are electronically conducting in addition to being hydrophilic, which is an interesting combination for a ‘conductive clay’. MXenes have already shown promising applications in various fields, such as energy storage, catalysis, and electromagnetic shielding. This chapter introduces the latest research developments related to the synthesis, structure, performance, and application of MXenes. The future vision for MXenes is also forecast.