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Chapter 18

Biomarkers of Effect for EDCs and Indicators to be Used in Epidemiological Studies on Reproductive Health

Human exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals, particularly at low doses, is ubiquitous, persistent and occurs in complex mixtures with associated health effects that cannot be predicted when analyzing single compounds independently. Concomitant exposure to these compounds, particularly in critical windows of exposure, may therefore result in hazardous health effects in the exposed individuals and in the offspring, potentially associated with a complex ‘body burden’ of different origins. For the past decades, several epidemiological studies have been performed in an effort to develop biomarkers of effect with the ability to evaluate and potentially predict the risk of disease.

Publication details

Print publication date
08 Dec 2020
Copyright year
Print ISBN
ePub eISBN

From the book series:
Issues in Toxicology