Significant increases in agricultural production and productivity have been achieved in the last decades and Brazil has become one of the main players in world agribusiness with the largest consumption in absolute values of pesticides in the world. However, the consequences of a predatory model of production and development can cause problems of environmental contamination and human health either via water and food or by direct exposure of workers to different chemicals. Contaminants in Brazil are found in the environment, in the water, in the fresh food, grains, breast and cow's milk, everywhere. Therefore, it is not only a question of exposure, but in fact a problem of imposition. Available data published by Brazilian researchers are showing contamination of aquatic ecosystems and human population groups by persistent chemicals, hormones and pesticides suspected to have endocrine-disrupting properties. The most recent investigations on endocrine-disrupting chemicals detected in environmental and human samples are reported here as well as the current activities by official regulatory bodies. The legislation from 1988 is protective from the point of establishing cutting off criteria and non-approval for pesticides, but there is a big gap between what is in the law and what happens in practice. In conclusion, there is no structure to monitor all chemicals and products consumed and released in the country, which results in recurrent human and environmental contamination. Overall, the massive role of Brazil within the international food and agro-energy supply makes the effects of pollution not only a local problem but also a global concern.