Bone as a Target for Endocrine Disruptors
Bone is a dynamic tissue that undergoes changes throughout the life of the individual in response to external and internal stimuli. At the cellular level, osteoclasts and osteoblasts act in syncytial mode, resorbing and adding new bone, respectively. This homeostasis is strictly controlled. Many risk factors for decreased bone quality, such as older age, female sex, lack of exercise and nutrition, have been known for decades. Despite this, the role of environmental chemicals and especially endocrine disruptors (EDs) have only recently been connected to adverse bone effects, as estrogen and testosterone are the key hormones in regulating bone tissue. This chapter focuses on the endocrine disruptors, dioxins, tributyltin, phthalates, perfluoroalkylated substances, diethylstilbestrol and bisphenol-A, as these are the most common EDs of which the exposure effects on bone have been investigated. In addition, we discuss the possibility of bone acting as a reservoir for EDs, which highlights the role of bone in toxicology.