(Bio)electroanalysis in the Field of Greener Analytical Chemistry
Modern (bio)electroanalysis is currently in consonance with the demands of green chemistry owing to both the intrinsic characteristics of electrochemical transduction and the unique features offered by electrochemical devices to minimize the use of reagents, organic solvents and hazardous substances. Remarkable efforts have been made in recent years in the preparation of modified electrode substrates involving non-toxic materials and greener protocols, more biological than chemical, to perform the electrochemical measurements or pretreat the sample. It is also notable in this context the particular attention that has been paid to the development of environmentally friendly electrochemical sensors involving paper, molecularly imprinted polymers and ion-selective electrodes. In addition, the replacement of organic solvents by eco-friendly solvents (ionic liquids, deep eutectic solvents and supercritical fluids) and the growing interest in developing methodologies capable of reducing the sample size and the amount of waste products, mainly by miniaturization of the electrochemical approaches and their coupling with continuous techniques, are novel approaches to be considered in green electroanalysis. All these relevant aspects are discussed and illustrated in this chapter through a critical approach to representative studies selected from the recent literature.