Coffee in the Development, Progression and Management of Type 2 Diabetes
The global incidence of diabetes has reached epidemic proportions with an estimated 9% of adults over 18 years having some form of the disease. Approximately 90% of these cases will be due to type 2 diabetes (T2D) characterized by hyperglycemia and impaired insulin action. Given this, cost-effective lifestyle strategies to prevent disease onset and progression are imperative. One such intervention may involve coffee consumption. Chronic coffee consumption dose-dependently reduces the risk of T2D and its associated comorbidities including obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Compared to non-consumers, 1 cup per day is associated with a risk reduction of ∼0.92, while high levels (6 cups per day) result in a risk reduction of ∼0.67 for T2D, a level that far exceeds many other known interventions. This relation is independent of ethnicity, age, sex, socioeconomic status and genetic factors predisposing an individual to consume coffee. Coffee may also reduce the severity of T2D symptoms early in the course of the disease. This review considers these relationships and the potential mechanisms by which chronic coffee consumption is protective. As coffee consumption and T2D reduction has been shown for both caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee, the non-caffeine components of coffee are likely responsible for these beneficial effects.