Noncovalent Immobilization of Catalysts on Electrode Surfaces
Molecular metal complexes and other redox-active species can be usefully incorporated into functional devices by attachment or immobilization on electrodes as solid supports. Stable adhesion of the complexes to electrode surfaces can be driven by covalent or noncovalent interactions. This chapter surveys the use of polyaromatic hydrocarbon moieties, chiefly the pyrene group, to immobilize redox-active species noncovalently onto electrode surfaces. Synthetic incorporation of pyrenyl groups onto core catalyst structures is shown to be attractive for its simplicity and it is generally effective in enabling studies of surface-immobilized redox chemistry and catalysis. Efforts reported in the literature to improve stability, electron-transfer kinetics and long-term catalyst viability are specifically highlighted. A summary and outlook section provides a brief discussion of key challenges to the field and opportunities for future developments in this rapidly evolving area.