Preparation Methods for Tissue/Organ-derived dECMs – Effects on Cell Removal and ECM Changes
Various decellularization methods based on physical, chemical, or biological treatments have been proposed to date. Each of them has advantages and disadvantages. To remove cells completely and to inhibit extracellular matrix (ECM) denaturation at the same time seems to be impossible and may not be the ideal decellularization method. Residual substrates and some changes of the ECM resulted in good recellularization or tissue regeneration in some cases. In this chapter, various decellularization methods are summarized and each decellularization method is divided into three modes of action, (1) cell disruption, (2) removal of cellular components, and (3) making large molecules smaller by digestion or degradation. Efficacy of each action and change (denaturation) in ECM components are defined by the decellularization method and its conditions, which lead to successful or unsuccessful results of recellularization and tissue or organ regeneration.