Optical Coherence Tomography in Multiple Sclerosis
The retina consists of multiple layers of different types of cells; the inner layer is known as the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and it consists of unmyelinated optic nerve axons coming from the retinal ganglion cells. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is able to detect subtle changes in the thickness of the retina by means of infrared light reflection, representing retinal and optic nerve damage in neuro-ophthalmology pathologies. In recent years, different research has suggested that retinal OCT is a sensitive and useful tool to measure axonal damage after optic neuropathy and to understand the process of neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients using retinal changes as a window to the brain. The most important findings regarding the OCT in MS patients are described in this chapter.