3D Printing in Chemical Education
This chapter describes the use of 3D printing for the teaching of organic, inorganic, physical, and analytical chemistry, and biochemistry. It describes examples demonstrating how 3D printing can be used for the development of accurate, descriptive, bespoke, robust, inexpensive, and attractive physical models, that are not limited by the complexity of the desired structures. Various methods, software, and tools have been developed to facilitate the 3D printing of computer simulated molecular models, which have been used to teach difficult subjects such as stereochemistry, crystallography, hybridisation, atomic structure, atomic and molecular orbitals, and steric hindrance. In biochemistry, 3D-printed biomacromolecular models have been used to demonstrate difficult concepts such as protein folding, self-assembly, and structure-function relationships. Models of potential energy surfaces have been 3D-printed to provide kinaesthetic learning of mathematical functions and relations. Working models of analytical instruments such as spectrophotometers, colourimeters, fluorometers, and conductivity measurement systems have been 3D-printed to increase the availability of these instruments in resource-limited locations.