3D Printing in Pharmaceutical Chemistry
This chapter describes the use of 3D printing in the production of oral, implantable, and transdermal drug delivery systems. The use of 3D printing for manufacturing solid dosage forms was first reported in 1996. Since then, different 3D printing techniques, such as binder jetting, FDM, SL, PolyJet and SLS have been used for the fabrication of pharmaceutical drug delivery systems. 3D printing has impacted various pharmaceutical processes, products and properties, including drug content, release profiles, drug combinations, and dosage-form shapes and sizes for personalised medicine. 3D printing has been used to develop various new drug delivery systems, such as new fast disintegrating dosage forms, zero-order sustained release dosage forms, floating tablets, nanocapsule delivery devices, intrauterine systems, automatically triggered implants, catheters, and microneedles. Recent U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval of a 3D-printed tablet, namely antiepileptic drug Spritam® (levetiracetam) has triggered immediate and significant interest in the field of 3D-printed pharmaceuticals. Various active pharmaceutical ingredients (paracetamol, aminosalicylic acid, theophylline, captopril, prednisolone, and domperidone), pharmaceutical polymers (ethyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, poly(ε-caprolactone), poly(ethylene glycol), poly(lactic acid), poly(vinylpyrrolidone)), and copolymers (poly(acrylate)/poly(methacrylate), poly(vinyl alcohol)/poly(ethylene glycol), poly(ethylene glycol)/poly(vinyl acetate)/poly(vinylcaprolactame)) have been successfully printed or encapsulated using different 3D printing techniques.