3D Printing in Analytical Chemistry Methods and Applications
Analytical chemistry is a diverse and complex discipline, within which the development of new technology, methods and applications is constant. This chapter describes the development and use of 3D-printed devices and materials in analytical methods and applications, particularly those involving sample extraction, chromatographic separations, mass spectrometry, and full lab-on-a-chip based assays. Discussed herein are functionalised and non-functionalised 3D-printed materials applied within extraction methods to isolate target analytes from complex biological and environmental samples. Taking this a step further, 3D printing has also been used to investigate shape, size, and arrangement effects within printed porous beds, and liquid chromatographic columns. In addition, 3D printing has been applied to produce three-dimensionally complex liquid and gas chromatography columns from both metallic and polymeric materials, to investigate the effects of complex column geometries and band broadening theories in separation science. In mass spectrometry, 3D printing has been applied in the production of a variety of novel electrospray devices and adapted interfaces, together with producing electrodes to focus and separate ions. Finally, the chapter also covers applications of complete lab-on-a-chip devices which have been 3D-printed and applied to complex analytical challenges.