3D-printed Analytical Detectors
This chapter describes the use of 3D printing techniques for the fabrication of optical and electrochemical detectors for application in the chemical and biochemical sciences. The advent of various 3D printing techniques has enabled new directions in detector development and seen new three-dimensionally complex detectors designed, printed, and applied across multiple fields. These include 3D-printed and smartphone-enabled optical-sensing platforms for point-of-care diagnostics. These platforms have been developed to deliver both absorption and luminescence based spectroscopic measurements, including visible spectroscopy, fluorescence based immunoassays and fluorescence microscopy. In addition, these simple 3D-printed platforms have been applied to complement both standard and paper-based colourimetric assays. Detector cells have been 3D-printed for different optical and electrochemical detection devices, and have been applied in amperometry, voltammetry, electrochemiluminescence, chemiluminescence, immunomagnetic assays, and spectroelectrochemistry. Polymer 3D printing has also been used to customise various parts and accessories for analytical detectors, including new optics, interfaces, holders, attachments, and stages. Metal and polymer 3D printing have both been applied to the development of bespoke three-dimensionally complex electrodes.