Encapsulation of Nutraceuticals
Nutraceuticals are becoming more popular as the link between diet and health strengthens. However, their biological efficacy is often limited due to poor solubility and stability, limiting the beneficial effects. This chapter explores the complexities in oral delivery of bioactives and nutraceuticals. The Biopharmaceutics Classification Scheme (BCS) and the Nutraceutical Bioavailability Classification Scheme (NuBACS) are described with relevance to delivery systems such as encapsulation, and the various external triggers for site-specific release of orally delivered bioactives are examined. Furthermore, specific benefits of using delivery systems are identified such as: chemical and environmental protection, increasing solubility, bioaccessibility, stability and bioavailability, enhanced intestinal permeability, tailoring delivery, and flavor masking. A general overview of the most common encapsulation techniques, specifically, emulsification, drying, fluid bed coating, coacervation, inclusion complexation, supercritical fluid methods, liposomes, and extrusion are described.