DNA-based ECL Assays
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) contains the genetic information of biology, which is crucial for evolution and perpetuation. In addition to its biological roles, DNA possesses unique target recognition functions by aptamers and catalytic functions by DNAzymes. The structure switchable property of DNA also offers remarkable flexibility in the formation of various structures, such as duplexes and G-quadruplexes. In view of these versatile functions, DNA is an ideal building block for various applications in electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) assays. In this chapter, we provide a comprehensive overview of DNA-based ECL assays, encompassing work published in previous decades. First, we introduce the general aspects of DNA and of DNA-based ECL assays. Then, we summarize the general sensing strategies used in DNA-based ECL assays from target recognition to signal generation, focussing on specific strategies derived from the unique functions of DNA. We then describe the broad applications of DNA-based ECL assays in analytical and biomedical fields before discussing the several challenges remaining and future perspectives in the field.