Process Analytical Technology in Continuous Crystallization
This chapter discusses the topic of process analytical technology (PAT) in the context of continuous manufacturing and crystallization. The chapter starts with the introduction of the quality by design (QbD) concept, which heavily relies on the application of PAT tools for its implementation. The next section discusses the most widely used PAT instruments for batch and continuous crystallization processes. Furthermore, the issues of data analysis and management for the application of PAT in continuous manufacturing and crystallization are discussed. A detailed discussion on the use of econometrics hypothesis tests for systematic steady-state detection is presented in one of paragraphs of this chapter. Model-free PAT-based control strategies for continuous crystallization processes are discussed in the second part of the chapter while the PAT implementation in the monitoring and control of mixed suspension mixed product removal (MSMPR) and tubular crystallizers are highlighted in the final two sections.