Infectious disease management has become an increasing challenge in recent years. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organization, microbial infections are a top concern. Pathogenic microorganisms are of main concern in hospitals and other healthcare locations, as they affect the optimal functioning of medical devices, surgical devices, bone cements, etc. Combatting microbial infections has become a serious health concern and major challenging issue due to antimicrobial resistance or multidrug resistance and has become an important research field in science and medicine. Antibiotic resistance is a phenomenon where microorganisms acquire or innately possess resistance to antimicrobial agents. New materials offer a promising antimicrobial strategy as they can kill or inhibit microbial growth on their surface or within the surrounding environment with superior efficacy, low toxicity and minimized environmental problems. The present chapter focuses on classification of antimicrobial materials, surface modification and design requirements, their mode of action, antimicrobial evaluation tests and clinical status.