Commercial DNA Testing
This chapter describes the expectations from commercial clients who commission commercial DNA testing for authenticity and the potential gaps that may exist in meeting these requirements. It briefly reviews polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques, including end-point PCR, real-time PCR digital PCR and the application of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and single-stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP). In addition, next generation sequencing (NGS) is discussed although currently available commercial DNA test methods are predominantly based on PCR, real-time PCR and RFLP techniques, SSCP analysis and, up to now, less frequently NGS. Comparisons are drawn between commercial DNA test kits and in-house methods, illustrating the advantages and challenges of each for the commercial DNA analytical service provider. The chapter includes comprehensive lists of real-time PCR commercial kits available for meat and fish authenticity analysis. Finally, reporting the results of DNA analyses is discussed.