Catalytic aftertreatment systems for trucks fueled by biofuels – aspects on the impact of fuel quality on catalyst deactivation
The issue of sustainable energy supply is a global problem for pursuing future endeavours in the energy area. In countries such as China and India there is a tremendous growth at the moment, which is envisaged by an ever growing demand for vehicles. Hence, one of the grand challenges of society is to meet the demands for sustainable and environmentally-friendly technologies in the transport sector. One way to tackle the problem of growing concentrations of carbon dioxide, which is believed to contribute to global warming, is the use of biofuels. It is becoming more and more evident that global warming is partly due to increasing anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions. An important contribution to these emissions is the use of fossil fuels in the transport sector. Hence, more efficient engines and an increased use of biofuels would be a step in the right direction. Although new propulsion systems are emerging, such as hybrid power-trains and fuel cell systems, analysis shows that combustion systems with excess oxygen, such as the diesel engine, will be the most important engine concept for the next 20 years. In this paper we will identify the specific challenges related to the production and use of biofuels in heavy-duty trucks and how they influence the catalytic units in the emission after-treatment system in the truck. Biofuels, such as biodiesel, contain potential poisons for the vehicle exhaust after-treatment, such as potassium, sodium, magnesium, phosphorus, zinc, sulfur and other compounds.