Kinase Inhibition for Immuno-oncology
A new era of immunotherapeutic intervention in oncology was ushered in by the approval of ipilimumab in 2011, a CTLA4 blocking antibody for the treatment of melanoma. The ensuing approval of several PD-(L)1 immune checkpoint-blockading agents demonstrated that durable responses could be realized in a disease where only a modest delay to progression was the standard outcome. All these therapeutic antibodies act through modulating the inter-cellular communication network employed by the immune system. However, such modalities are unsuited to attenuate intra-cellular signaling pathways, which currently remain the domain of small molecule therapeutics. Discussed herein are kinase targets and small molecule inhibitors thereof that have found utility in immuno-oncology. An emphasis in this review is placed on molecules and targets under clinical evaluation, although emerging areas of exciting preclinical biology will also be discussed.