Drinking water treatment is an extensive topic and is particularly so when applied to developing countries. This chapter summarizes and concludes the book by putting together the information gathered in the previous chapters and emphasizing that there is no one universal water treatment method. In fact, the selection of an appropriate technique depends on various factors such as the pollutants present, scale of operation involved and the cost. The same criteria are also applicable for the selection of methods to treat conserved water such as harvested rain water and waste water. This chapter also highlights the ongoing initiatives by various prominent water authorities such as the UN, WHO, UNICEF, World bank and other NGOs in the field of drinking water treatment especially for developing countries. Finally, recommendations for future initiatives in potable water treatment stress the need for further innovation in this arena.