Treatment Techniques for Developing Countries
Drinking water treatments play a pivotal role in converting polluted raw water to safe and clean potable water and this is of paramount importance in developing countries due poor economic conditions and the lack of a basic electrical supply. Among the myriad drinking water treatment methodologies available to remove various physical, chemical and biological pollutants, only those methods that are simple to use, effective but inexpensive will be feasible in the developing regions. This chapter describes some of these techniques like solar water disinfection in conventional and hybrid mode, filtration using slow sand and rapid sand, ceramic and natural materials, herbal techniques that use medicinal plants to treat water, and desalination using renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, geothermal and wave energies. Each technique is described in detail highlighting the principle and working of each methodology. Moreover, newer emerging technologies such as lifestraw, solar ball, water purifying bicycle, the drinkable book, life sack and pure water bottle are some of the remarkable innovations that are also described. Examples of developing countries that are using these technologies are listed and most importantly, the pros and cons and the cost effectiveness of various methods are discussed.