Due to the limited reserves of non-renewable fossil fuel resources, continued high demands for fuels, and increased concerns about climate change, the transportation industry faces relentless challenges both from a global market and environmental perspective. As a result, the production of transportation fuels from/via microalgae continues to attract much attention because of its potential for fast growth rates, high oil content, ability to grow in unconventional scenarios, and inherent carbon neutrality. Moreover, the microalgae path minimizes the “food versus fuel” concerns associated with several other biomass based strategies, as microalgae do not compete with food crops in the food supply chain. This chapter reviews the recent progress on biofuels/chemicals production via catalytic conversion of microalgae feedstock, as well as the catalytic process of microalgae as an intermediate. The catalytic conversion reaction pathways are fully discussed based on both experimental and theoretical approaches. The usage of microalgae as biocatalysts over bio-electrochemical fuel cells is also described. Finally, this work makes several projections for the potential of various pathways in producing alternative biofuels and chemicals using microalgae.