Porous Ionic Liquid Materials
Porous ionic liquid materials are a well-established reality in the field of functional porous materials. The combination of porosity with ionic liquid functionality gives rise to a large variety of materials useful for a broad range of applications, ranging from gas adsorption/separation to catalysis. This chapter gives an overview of all kinds of porous materials that bear an ionic liquid functionality ranging from porous poly(ionic liquid)s, to porous cationic polymers and ionic liquids supported or grafted on several kinds of pre-formed porous inorganic or hybrid materials. In particular, in hybrid materials, the ionic liquid moiety is an integrated part of the organic–inorganic hybrid structure, as in the case of metal–organic frameworks (MOFs), and periodic mesoporous organosilicas (PMOs). The porous materials described in this chapter bear the common ionic liquid functionalities, such as imidazolium, pyridinium and ammonium. A brief discussion is given on the synthetic approaches and on the evaluation of the porosity in terms of surface area and pore size distribution, distinguishing between microporous and mesoporous materials.