Difficulties of Translating Outcomes from Animal Studies to Clinical Trials
Attempts to reproduce the findings of experimental treatments for stroke in animal models have been mainly unsuccessful. This review considers possible reasons for this failure to translate from animals to humans. Differences among animal models of stroke, transient ischemic attack, and traumatic brain injury in the type and extent of cerebral injury are reviewed, as well as differences between humans and animal stroke models. There are also major differences in the way that studies are performed in humans and animal models, as well as the functional outcomes assessed. Strategies to improve the quality of animal and human studies of stroke therapies are considered.