Carbonylation Reactions in the Synthesis of Pharmaceutically Active Compounds
The production of pharmaceuticals usually involves multistep syntheses where the selectivity and yield of the individual steps are of utmost importance. Among highly efficient catalytic processes, carbonylation has gained special attention as it involves both new carbon–carbon bond formation and the introduction of a synthetically useful functionality into the parent molecule. Ambient conditions, high activity of the catalysts, the possibility of tuning selectivities and high functional group tolerance make these reactions versatile tools in the synthesis of carbonyl compounds and carboxylic acid derivatives. The synthetic utility of this methodology is demonstrated by examples from the past 10 years for the application of hydroalkoxycarbonylation of alkenes, carbonylation of aryl/alkenyl halides and oxidative carbonylation reactions for the synthesis of compounds of pharmaceutical interest.